Association Ecosystem (Internet site www.есоsystеmа.ru)


Donate



HOME >>> MAIN ENGLISH PAGE >>> ECOLOGICAL FIELD TECHNIQUES


Home
Main English Page
Meet the President
Field Ecology Center
  Gallery
  Moscow Region Nature

More about "Ecosystem"
Field Ecology Education in Russia
Instructive Videos
  Autumn
  Winter
  Spring
  Summer
Instructive Manuals
International Cooperation
  Field Studies Centers (UK)
  International Expeditions (USA)
  Ecological Field Techniques (USA)
  Our Partners
  International Contacts
Russian Nature in Photographs
  Geographic Index
  Systematic Index
  Alphabetical Index
  Search Form
  Gallery
Nature Landscapes of the World
  Europe
  Asia
  North America
  South America
  Africa
  Australia
  Antarctic
Our Banners
Contacts

Recommend this page to your friends:





[ sp ] : ml об : { lf }



Please indicate our source www.ecosystema.ru ® if you publish these materials in the Internet.

Study of the Vertical Structure of a Forest

© Alexsander S. Bogolyubov, Nadejda S. Lazareva, Russia, 1999

© Michael J. Brody, USA, 2003

Study of the Vertical Structure of a ForestThis manual describes a procedure for the study of the vegetative community of a forest. It includes a description of the main characteristics of vegetative canopies, species composition, and ratios of different plant species in the community based on their relative numbers, and for tree and shrub layers, the diameter of trunks, height and age.

This field study has instructional video featuring real students conducting the ecological field techniques in nature. Each video illustrates the primary instructional outcomes and the major steps in accomplishing the task including reporting the results.

Introduction

In nature, plants are distributed into layers. Each layer is a height group, depending on their demands for sunlight. Layers are easily visible in the forest since the plants share not only light, but also space for their crowns.

The number of layers in the forest community can vary greatly. In communities that are rich in resources and species, there are more layers; for example, in tropical rainforests, there can be more than 20 layers.

The forest structure of a moderate climatic zone is usually simpler, with not more than five layers. These forests are usually represented by three layers: the tree layer, made up of adult trees (ripe stand), the bush layer, meaning those that actually form the so-called "forest" bushes, which never grow high; and a layer of underwood, consisting of young trees, which grow to the first layer over the course of time. In addition to these three layers are two layers of soil surface cover; an herbaceous-shrub layer formed with herbaceous plants and shrubs, and a moss layer of terrestrial mosses and lichens.

Not all layers are present at each forest type. For example, young spruce forests, where dense spruce crowns are pulled closely together, often consist only of two layers - forest and moss. There are also forests where the number of layers is higher; for example, stands consisting of several species of adult trees which greatly differ in height.

Procedure for the Geobotanical Description

The objective of this ecological field study is to have students describe the layered structures of a forest and to compare the structures of different plant communities. The completion of this task will help students learn the structure of the regional vegetation. Studying typical plant species with plant associations will help students learn the skills of botanical description, which are often necessary for research work on other subjects and natural objects. It is good to keep in mind that this procedure is greatly simplified and can be recommended only for educational purposes.

Materials and equipment

For an elementary geobotanical description it is necessary to have the following: a report form (Table 1 at the end of this manual), a tape measure for dividing a site and for the measurement of the length of the fallen trunk (in meters), a centimeter ruler for the measurement of trunk diameters, and an altimeter (if one is available). A bag or herbarial folder for collection of unknown plants can also be useful. Paper envelopes are required for the collection of mosses.

Site selection

The work should start with the selection of a place for descriptions and laying down a test site. It is more convenient to begin this study with simple plant associations where the layered structure is well expressed and can be easily described, for example, a homogeneous coniferous forest. If such a site is not available, any other type of the forest with expressed layered structure and a small number of species can be chosen.

It is best if a homogeneous (average in every respect and section) forest is chosen for description.

A square of approximately 10 x 10 meters is measured and the outline marked with colored tape. If the association is thinned out, i.e. trees are found at great distances from each other; the site can be larger in size. If colored tape is not available, the corners of...

 

This was only the first page from the manual and its full version you can see in the

Ecological Field Studies 4CD Set:

It is possible to purchase the complete set of 40 seasonal Ecological Field Study Materials (video in mpg + manuals in pdf formats) in an attractive 4 compact disk set. These compact disks are compatible with Mac and PC computers. The teacher background information and manuals can be printed out for easy reference. The videos are suitable for individual student or whole class instruction. To purchase the complete 4CD set write a request to the authors (in a free form).

Ecological Field Studies 4CD Set

Some of these manuals you can also purchase in the form of applications for Android devices on Google Play.

Ecological Field Studies Demo Disk:

We also have a free and interesting demonstration disk that explains our ecological field studies approach. The demo disk has short excerpts from all the seasonal field study videos as well as sample text from all the teacher manuals. The disk has an entertaining automatic walk through which describes the field study approach and explains how field studies meet education standards.

You can also download the Demo Disc from ecosystema.ru/eng/eftm/CD_Demo.iso. This is a virtual hybrid (for PC and Mac computers) CD-ROM image (one 563 Mb file "CD_Demo.iso"). You can write this image to the CD and use it in your computer in ordinary way. You also can use emulator software of virtual CD-ROM drive to play the disk directly from your hard disk.

Ecological Field Studies Demo Disk

 

Other Ecological Field Studies Instructive Manuals:

Autumn Season

  1. Orienteering in the Forest
  2. Procedure of the Geological Exposure Description
  3. Plotting a Profile of a River Valley Slope
  4. Simple Procedure of Soil Description
  5. Assessment of the Vital State of a Forest Based on Pine-tree Analysis
  6. Study of Species Composition and Number of Fungi
  7. Study of Species Composition and Census of Birds Using the Line Transect-counting Method
  8. Integrated Study Based on Landscape Profile
  9. Complex Environmental Assessment of Human Impact on an Area
  10. Assessment of Air Pollution by Lichen Indication Method

Winter Season

  1. Making a Campfire
  2. Simple “Eye” Survey of the Field Study Site
  3. Study of Growth Dynamics of Trees Based on Annual Rings
  4. Mapping Forest Vegetation
  5. Green Plants Under Snow
  6. Methods of Observation of a Chickadee Flock's Territorial Behavior
  7. Procedure of Winter Mammals Route Census by Footprints
  8. Study of Mammal Ecology According to Their Tracks
  9. Physical and Chemical Properties of Natural Waters
  10. Study of Snow Cover Profile

Spring Season

  1. Let's Help Birds!
  2. Study of the Ecology of Early Flowering Plants
  3. Phenology of Plant Florescence
  4. Assessment of the Vital State of Coniferous Underbrush
  5. Study of Forest Invertebrates (Part I: Forest Litter, Wood)
  6. Studies of Species Composition and Abundance of Amphibians
  7. Studying Minerals and Rocks in Your Area
  8. Studies of the Day Activity of Singing Birds
  9. Studies of Bird Populations Size by Different Methods
  10. Study of Fauna of Spring Temporary Water Bodies

Summer Season

  1. Making a Herbarium
  2. The Study of Plants in Your Local Environment
  3. Study of the Vertical Structure of a Forest
  4. Study of Forest Invertebrates (Part 2: Grass Layer, Tree Crowns and Air)
  5. Study of Birds’ Nesting Life
  6. Complex Comparative Description of Small Rivers and Streams
  7. The Study of Water Invertebrates in a Local River and Assessment of Its Environmental State
  8. Study of Plankton
  9. Assessment of Ecological Features of Meadows on the Base of Vegetation Cover
  10. Assessment of Environmental State of the Forest Based on Leaves’ Asymmetry



Recommend this page to your friends:

Home | Main English Page | Field Ecology Center | More about Ecosystem | International Cooperation
Ecological Field Techniques (Instructive Videos) | Ecological Field Techniques (Instructive Manuals)
Russian Nature in Photographs | Nature Landscapes of the World | Contacts

Google
 



Поделиться/Share:
Обращение с посетителям сайта



: ml : [ stl ] [ pp ]


Порекомендуйте нас в "своих" социальных сетях:
- share this page with your friends!
Поддержать сайт / Donate


© Экологический центр "Экосистема"™, А.С. Боголюбов / © Field Ecology Center "Ecosystem"™, Alexander Bogolyubov, 2001-2016